Dr. Vicki Norberg-Bohm, a pioneer in the study of technology innovation, died March 21, 2004 at the age of 48 after a courageous battle with cancer. Dr. Vicki Norberg-Bohm led two ETIP research projects: Technology Innovation for Global Change: The Role of R&D, Regulation and Assessment, which focuses on lessons for policy design from 3 energy technologies: gas turbines, wind turbines, and solar photovoltaics; and Voluntary, Collaborative and Information-based approaches to reaching energy and environmental goals, which examines the effectiveness of this new set of policy mechanisms. Prior to joining the Belfer Center, Dr. Norberg-Bohm was an assistant professor in the Department of Urban Studies and Planning at MIT. While at MIT, she was co-PI of the Environmental Technology and Public Policy Program, and part of the research team on "Creating Incentives for Environmentally Enhancing Technological Change" at MIT's Center for Environmental Initiatives. From 1998 -1999, she was also co-Director of the Program for Environmental Education and Research, which focused on developing multidisciplinary educational initiatives.
"Conclusions: Lessons for the Design and Use of Voluntary, Collaborative, and Information-Based Approaches to Environmental Policy"
"Reaching Environmental Goals through R&D Collaborations: Lessons from the US Department of Energy Programs for Gas Turbines and Solar Photovoltaics"
Industrial Transformation evaluates the effectiveness of twelve innovative, voluntary, collaborative, and information-based programs, focusing particularly on the effectiveness of these programs in bringing about industrial transformation — changes in production and consumption structures that will help move their societies toward environmental sustainability.
The purpose of this report is to offer analysis and insights about the structure and operation of collaborative technology partnerships in public policy. This report is based on an assessment of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program, a public-private partnership between DOE and the building industry. This report has three primary objectives related to the design and management of these styles of programs. First, it explains the Building America program concept and its implementation. Second, it discusses the program's successes and identifies opportunities for improvement. Third, it offers recommendations for strengthening the program and improving future evaluations.
The Role of Government in Technology Innovation: Insights for Government Policy in the Energy Sector
This volume presents insights for the design of government policy to promote technology innovation in the energy sector. These insights are based on a comparative analysis of the history of government involvement in four sectors (computers and electronics, agricultural biotechnology, industrial chemicals and the power sector) as well as an analysis of government’s historic role in defense and civilian technology innovation.
Public Policy for Energy Technology Innovation: A Historical Analysis of Fluidized Bed Combustion Development in the USA
Journal Article, Energy Policy, issue 30
This paper analyzes the role of public policy in the development of atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) of coal for power generation in the United States. AFBC is at present a mature technology for power generation up to the size of 250 MW. The technology has mainly been used by cogenerators and independent power producers, rather than by utilities. The trends in development are explained by an interaction of supply and demand factors. On the supply side, the two key factors were the early government-sponsored demonstration plants and the subsequent introduction of advanced designs by the private sector. On the demand side, the key elements were the enactment of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act and the characterization of AFBC as one of the best available technologies to comply with environmental standards.
Voluntary, Collaborative, and Information-Based Policies: Lessons and Next Steps for Environmental and Energy Policy in the United States and Europe
Over the past decade, the United States and many European countries have developed new approaches to environmental policy that are voluntary, collaborative and information-based. These programs are attempts to engage industry in significant environmental improvements through dialogue, consensus-building and voluntary action rather than the imperatives of direct regulation or the incentives of market-based approaches. This workshop examined the effectiveness of these innovative policies, focusing particularly on how these approaches can provide opportunities and incentives for private-sector leadership in environmental protection, and whether they can be effective in stimulating beyond compliance behavior and the development and diffusion of environmentally superior technologies. The workshop was organized into five panels: voluntary approaches, industry sector collaboration, collaborative approaches for technology development, information disclosure policy, and environmental management systems.
Creating Incentives for Environmentally Enhancing Technological Change: Lessons from 30 Years of U.S. Energy Technology
Journal Article, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, issue 65
Due to the externalities associated with energy production and consumption, public policy is necessary to provide a stimulus for the development and diffusion of more environmentally sound energy technologies. Based on an in-depth history of technological development for four electric power technologies, this paper draws lessons for the design of future policies to promote innovation in energy technologies.
Journal Article, Policy Sciences
This paper explores how to design public policy mechanisms to stimulate rather than impede pollution-preventing technological innovation. It begins with a discussion of the role of government in civilian technology development and diffusion, sets out six design criteria for policy to promote "green" technology innovation, and assesses the potential and limitations of current U.S. policy approaches to stimulate technological innovation which moves us toward a minimal waste society.