Assistant Professor of Public Policy, Harvard Kennedy School; Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs
"The Role of the Complementary Sector and its Relationship with Network Formation and Government Policies in Emerging Sectors: The Case of Solar Photovoltaics Between 2001 and 2009"
Journal Article, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, volume 82
By Hyundo Choi, Former Associate, Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program (STPP)/Energy Technology Innovation Policy (ETIP) research group, February–September 2013; Former Research Fellow, STPP/ETIP, 2011–February 2013 and Laura Diaz Anadon, Assistant Professor of Public Policy, Harvard Kennedy School; Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs
Understanding the role of government policies in promoting the introduction of renewable technologies can help to catalyze the transition toward a more sustainable energy system. The literature on technological transitions using a multi-level perspective suggests that the co-evolution of the niche market (the new technology) and the complementary regime may have an important role to play in shaping this transition. This paper provides a quantitative analysis of the interactions between different types of solar photovoltaic (PV) networks at the niche level, the complementary semiconductor sector at the complementary regime level, and the solar PV policies in 14 different countries.
"The Future Costs of Nuclear Power Using Multiple Expert Elicitations: Effects of RD&D and Elicitation Design"
Journal Article, Environmental Research Letters, issue 3, volume 8
By Laura Diaz Anadon, Assistant Professor of Public Policy, Harvard Kennedy School; Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Gregory Nemet, Former Visiting Scholar, Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program/Energy Technology Innovation Policy research group, January–June 2011 and Elena Verdolini
Characterization of the anticipated performance of energy technologies to inform policy decisions increasingly relies on expert elicitation. Knowledge about how elicitation design factors impact the probabilistic estimates emerging from these studies is, however, scarce. We focus on nuclear power, a large-scale low-carbon power option, for which future cost estimates are important for the design of energy policies and climate change mitigation efforts. We use data from three elicitations in the USA and in Europe and assess the role of government research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) investments on expected nuclear costs in 2030.
"The Evolution of China's National Energy RD&D Programs: The Role of Scientists in Science and Technology Decision Making"
Journal Article, Energy Policy, volume 61
By Qiang Zhi, Former Associate, Energy Technology Innovation Policy research group (ETIP), September–December 2012; Former Research Fellow, ETIP, September 2011–August 2012, Jun Su, Former Research Fellow, Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program, 2001–2002, Peng Ru, Former Research Fellow, Energy Technology Policy Innovation Research Group/Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program, 2007–2008 and Laura Diaz Anadon, Assistant Professor of Public Policy, Harvard Kennedy School; Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs
Since 1978, when China launched its "opening up" reform, a range of large-scale national science and technology programs have been implemented to spur economic development. Energy has received significant attention and has become a growing priority in the past years. This article analyzes the goals, management, and impact over time of China's three largest national programs: Gong Guan, 863, and 973 Programs. Using quantitative metrics to describe the input and output, by conducting semi-structured interviews with officials, scientists, and other decision makers, and by reviewing available documents as well as a case study on the coal sector, the authors examined the changes in the decision making process, particularly in regard to the role of scientists.
Journal Article, Energy Strategy Reviews, issue 1, volume 2
By Afreen Siddiqi, Visiting Scholar, Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program, Arani Kajenthira, Former Associate, Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program, April–June 2013; Former Research Fellow, Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program, September 2010–March 2013 and Laura Diaz Anadon, Assistant Professor of Public Policy, Harvard Kennedy School; Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs
Integrated policy and planning is needed to effectively meet the challenges of growing water and energy inter-dependencies in many regions. Joint consideration of both water and energy domains can identify new options for increasing overall resource use efficiencies. In order to identify and realize such opportunities, however, detailed knowledge of current and emerging water–energy couplings is needed along with a nuanced understanding of key actors and agencies engaged in decision-making. In this paper we develop a systematic, analytical approach based on quantitative analysis of water and energy couplings, identification and characterization of key actors and groups using concepts from stakeholders theory, and employing notions from organization theory of boundary-spanning agents that can serve to bridge inter-organizational networks for water and energy planning. We apply this approach to conduct an in-depth investigation of water and energy resources in Jordan.
In our annual review of the budget request for fiscal year 2014 for the Department of Energy's energy research, development, demonstration (RD&D) programs, we observe that it is significantly higher than the FY12 budget, a 33 percent increase overall, from $3.25 billion to $4.30 billion (current dollars), not including basic energy sciences. The increase in basic energy sciences is also large compared with FY12, a 17 percent increase for a total of $1.74 billion. We observe a huge decline in spending on deployment programs since the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act. Our database, including charts, is available for download.
Journal Article, Environmental Science and Technology, issue 12, volume 46
By Laura Diaz Anadon, Assistant Professor of Public Policy, Harvard Kennedy School; Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Valentina Bosetti, Matthew Bunn, Professor of Practice; Co-Principal Investigator, Project on Managing the Atom, Michela Catenacci and Audrey Lee, Former Research Fellow, Energy Technology Innovation Policy research group, 2009–2011
Probabilistic estimates of the cost and performance of future nuclear energy systems under different scenarios of government research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) spending were obtained from 30 U.S. and 30 European nuclear technology experts. The majority expected that such RD&D would have only a modest effect on cost, but would improve performance in other areas, such as safety, waste management, and uranium resource utilization. The U.S. and E.U. experts were in relative agreement regarding how government RD&D funds should be allocated, placing particular focus on very high temperature reactors, sodium-cooled fast reactors, fuels and materials, and fuel cycle technologies.
"Missions-oriented RD&D Institutions in Energy Between 2000 and 2010: A Comparative Analysis of China, the United Kingdom, and the United States"
Journal Article, Research Policy, issue 10, volume 41
By Laura Diaz Anadon, Assistant Professor of Public Policy, Harvard Kennedy School; Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs
By analyzing the institutions that have been created to stimulate energy technology innovation in the United States, the United Kingdom, and China—three countries with very different sizes, political systems and cultures, natural resources, and histories of involvement in the energy sector—this article highlights how variations in national objectives and industrial and political environments have translated into variations in policy.
"A New Case for Promoting Wastewater Reuse in Saudi Arabia: Bringing Energy into the Water Equation"
Journal Article, Journal of Environmental Management, volume 102
By Arani Kajenthira, Former Associate, Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program, April–June 2013; Former Research Fellow, Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program, September 2010–March 2013, Afreen Siddiqi, Visiting Scholar, Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program and Laura Diaz Anadon, Assistant Professor of Public Policy, Harvard Kennedy School; Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs
Saudi Arabia is the third-largest per capita water user worldwide and has addressed the disparity between its renewable water resources and domestic demand primarily through desalination and the abstraction of non-renewable groundwater. This study evaluates the potential costs of this approach in the industrial and municipal sectors, exploring economic, energy, and environmental costs (including CO2 emissions and possible coastal impacts). Although the energy intensity of desalination is a global concern, it is particularly urgent to rethink water supply options in Saudi Arabia because the entirety of its natural gas production is consumed domestically, primarily in petrochemical and desalination plants.
"The Price of Wind Power in China During its Expansion: Technology Adoption, Learning-by-doing, Economies of Scale, and Manufacturing Localization"
Journal Article, Energy Economics, issue 3, volume 34
Using the bidding prices of participants in China's national wind project concession programs from 2003 to 2007, this paper built up a learning curve model to estimate the joint learning from learning-by-doing and learning-by-searching, with a novel knowledge stock metric based on technology adoption in China through both domestic technology development and international technology transfer. The paper describes, for the first time, the evolution of the price of wind power in China, and provides estimates of how technology adoption, experience building wind farm projects, wind turbine manufacturing localization, and wind farm economies of scale have influenced the price of wind power.
Journal Article, PLoS ONE, issue 3, volume 7
By William J. Sutherland, Laura Bellingan, Jim R. Bellingham, Jason J. Blackstock, Robert M. Bloomfield, Michael Bravo, Victoria M. Cadman, David D. Cleevely, Andy Clements, Anthony S. Cohen, David R. Cope, Arthur A. Daemmrich, Former Research Fellow, Science, Technology and Public Policy Program, 1998–2000, Simon Denegri, Cristina Devecchi, Laura Diaz Anadon, Assistant Professor of Public Policy, Harvard Kennedy School; Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Robert Doubleday, Former Research Fellow, Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program, 2000–2001, Nicholas R. Dusic, Robert J. Evans, Wai Y. Feng, H. Charles J. Godfray, Paul Harris, Sue E. Hartley, Alison J. Hester, John Holmes, Alan Hughes, Mike Hulme, Colin Irwin, Richard C. Jennings, Gary S. Kass, Peter Littlejohns, Theresa M. Marteau, Glenn McKee, Erik P. Millstone, William J. Nuttall, Susan Owens, Miles M. Parker, Sarah Pearson, Judith Petts, Richard Ploszek, Andrew S. Pullin, Graeme Reid, Keith S. Richards, John G. Robinson, Louise Shaxson, Leonor Sierra, Beck G. Smith, David J. Spiegelhalter, Jack Stilgoe, Andy Stirling, Christopher P. Tyler, David E. Winickoff, Former Research Fellow, Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program, 2002–2003 and Ron L. Zimmern
The need for policymakers to understand science and for scientists to understand policy processes is widely recognized. However, the science-policy relationship is sometimes difficult and occasionally dysfunctional; it is also increasingly visible, because it must deal with contentious issues, or itself becomes a matter of public controversy, or both. Laura Diaz Anadon and her coauthors suggest that identifying key unanswered questions on the relationship between science and policy will catalyse and focus research in this field.