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Walter C. Ladwig III



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Summer 2016

"Influencing Clients in Counterinsurgency: U.S. Involvement in El Salvador’s Civil War, 1979–92"

Journal Article, International Security, issue 1, volume 41

By Walter C. Ladwig III

In foreign counterinsurgency campaigns from Vietnam to Afghanistan, the United States has often found local elites to be more hindrance than help. Client governments resist U.S.-prescribed reforms crucial to counterinsurgency success because such reforms would undermine their power. The history of the United States’ involvement in El Salvador’s civil war shows that placing strict conditions on military and economic aid is crucial to gaining client governments’ compliance.



AP Photo

Winter 2007/08

"A Cold Start for Hot Wars? The Indian Army's New Limited War Doctrine"

Journal Article, International Security, issue 3, volume 32

By Walter C. Ladwig III

India’s inability to coerce Pakistan into halting its support for insurgents in Kashmir, as well as its experience in past conflicts with Pakistan, led it to develop Cold Start—a new offensive military doctrine that will allow it to mobilize quickly and retaliate in a limited manner. Although India is far from realizing its goal, this break from a traditional defensive strategy deserves scrutiny. A history of misperception and mistrust between India and Pakistan, poor intelligence, and domestic insecurity suggests that limited war could quickly escalate to the nuclear threshold, posing a serious risk to the stability of the subcontinent and the rest of the world.

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