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Olli Heinonen

Olli Heinonen

Senior Associate, Managing the Atom Project

Contact:
Email: olli_heinonen@hks.harvard.edu

 

 

By Region

 

Wikimedia

September 8, 2016

"Lessons learned from dismantlement of South Africa's biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons programs"

Journal Article, Nonproliferation Review

By Olli Heinonen, Senior Associate, Managing the Atom Project

South Africa had active nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons programs during the 1970s and 1980s. South Africa dismantled its nuclear weapon program prior to its 1991 accession to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Similarly, it terminated its chemical weapons program prior to its 1995 ratification of the Chemical Weapons Convention. Only the dismantlement of Pretoria's nuclear weapons program was subjected to international verification—albeit ex post facto—following a 1993 decision of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) General Conference to verify the correctness and completeness of South Africa's declarations under its NPT safeguards agreement. During the 1980s, South Africa also developed and purportedly used biological weapons, violating its obligations under the 1972 Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction, which it had ratified in 1975. This article draws lessons from the verification of the dismantlement of these programs and makes recommendations for future verification work to confirm the elimination of weapons of mass destruction capabilities.

 

 

Mark Holtzhausen

March 2014

"Verifying the Dismantlement of South Africa's Nuclear Weapons Program"

Book Chapter

By Olli Heinonen, Senior Associate, Managing the Atom Project

"In its 2010 annual Safeguards Statement [...] the IAEA determined that it 'found no indication of the diversion of declared nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities and no indication of undeclared nuclear material or activities. On this basis, the Secretariat concluded that, for these States, all nuclear material remained in peaceful activities.' This rolling safeguards report that provided a yearly review of the status of IAEA member states’ nuclear activities was noteworthy as South Africa was, for the first time, included in the above group of states."

 

 

March 11, 2014

"Remarks on the Report of the Defense Science Board 'Assessment of Nuclear Monitoring and Verification Technology'"

Presentation

By Olli Heinonen, Senior Associate, Managing the Atom Project

Olli Heinonen writes that though that there is no foolproof plan to chart outcomes, it remains very much within our control to take certain steps and actions that can make the future less uncertain and better managed its direction. The Task Force Assessment Report on Nuclear Monitoring and Verification Technology by the Defense Science Board is essential in providing a forward-looking framework and recommendations to better prepare us to prevent and shape nuclear proliferation choices.

 

March 11, 2014

"Remarks on the Report of the Defense Science Board 'Assessment of Nuclear Monitoring and Verification Technology'"

Presentation

By Olli Heinonen, Senior Associate, Managing the Atom Project

Olli Heinonen writes that though that there is no foolproof plan to chart outcomes, it remains very much within our control to take certain steps and actions that can make the future less uncertain and better managed its direction. The Task Force Assessment Report on Nuclear Monitoring and Verification Technology by the Defense Science Board is essential in providing a forward-looking framework and recommendations to better prepare us to prevent and shape nuclear proliferation choices.

 

Wikimedia

September 8, 2016

"Lessons learned from dismantlement of South Africa's biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons programs"

Journal Article, Nonproliferation Review

By Olli Heinonen, Senior Associate, Managing the Atom Project

South Africa had active nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons programs during the 1970s and 1980s. South Africa dismantled its nuclear weapon program prior to its 1991 accession to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Similarly, it terminated its chemical weapons program prior to its 1995 ratification of the Chemical Weapons Convention. Only the dismantlement of Pretoria's nuclear weapons program was subjected to international verification—albeit ex post facto—following a 1993 decision of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) General Conference to verify the correctness and completeness of South Africa's declarations under its NPT safeguards agreement. During the 1980s, South Africa also developed and purportedly used biological weapons, violating its obligations under the 1972 Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction, which it had ratified in 1975. This article draws lessons from the verification of the dismantlement of these programs and makes recommendations for future verification work to confirm the elimination of weapons of mass destruction capabilities.

 

 

Mark Holtzhausen

March 2014

"Verifying the Dismantlement of South Africa's Nuclear Weapons Program"

Book Chapter

By Olli Heinonen, Senior Associate, Managing the Atom Project

"In its 2010 annual Safeguards Statement [...] the IAEA determined that it 'found no indication of the diversion of declared nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities and no indication of undeclared nuclear material or activities. On this basis, the Secretariat concluded that, for these States, all nuclear material remained in peaceful activities.' This rolling safeguards report that provided a yearly review of the status of IAEA member states’ nuclear activities was noteworthy as South Africa was, for the first time, included in the above group of states."

 

 

October 25, 2013

"South Africa - Verification Lessons from the Dismantled Nuclear Program"

Presentation

By Olli Heinonen, Senior Associate, Managing the Atom Project

"South Africa - Verification Lessons from the Dismantled Nuclear Program"

presented in:

Nuclear Exits

Countries Foregoing the Nuclear Option

International Congress

Helsinki, Finland 18th -19th October, 2013

 

Pixabay

November 29, 2016

"The Trilateral Initiative and Beyond"

Presentation

By Olli Heinonen, Senior Associate, Managing the Atom Project

Article VI of the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) calls for “..... a treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control”. Complete elimination of nuclear weapons by a state requires verification of the dismantlement of nuclear weapons and related manufacturing facilities, and to provide assurances that all fissile materials from weapons, materials designated for weapons use, its scrap and other wastes, are accounted for, and any remaining nuclear activities be introduced for civilian use.

 

 

U.S. Dept. of State

July 27, 2016

"JCPOA implementation will face ‘some turbulences’ in coming months, Heinonen claims"

Q&A

By Olli Heinonen, Senior Associate, Managing the Atom Project

“Implementation has started well, but I see some turbulences during the months to come,” Heinonen tells the Tehran Times. Though both Russia and the U.S. have criticized UN chief Ban Ki-moon for his report of the implementation of the Security Council Resolution 2231, the former IAEA official defends the drafting of the report by saying “since the resolution calls Iran not to conduct tests with missiles designed for carrying nuclear weapons, the Secretary General apparently felt it necessary to express his views on the tests conducted by Iran during recent months.”

 

 

AP

June 27, 2016

"Legitimizing Iran’s Nuclear Program with a Broader Conclusion"

Op-Ed, Foundation for Defense of Democracies

By Olli Heinonen, Senior Associate, Managing the Atom Project

Restrictions on Iran’s uranium enrichment will remain in place for a few years after Transition Day, but Tehran can use the Broader Conclusion to advance the narrative that it should be treated as a country in good standing with its nuclear nonproliferation obligations.

 
Events Calendar

We host a busy schedule of events throughout the fall, winter and spring. Past guests include: UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, former Vice President Al Gore, and former Soviet Union President Mikhail Gorbachev.