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Andreas Goldthau

Andreas Goldthau

Associate, The Geopolitics of Energy Project




Dr Andreas Goldthau is Professor of International Relations at Royal Holloway University of London and Associate with the Geopolitics of Energy Project at Harvard University's Belfer Center for Science and Inernational Affairs. He is also a Fellow at King's College's Russia Institute. Prior to joining Royal Holloway, Dr. Goldthau served as Professor at Central European University's School of Public Policy, as Adjunct Professor at John Hopkins' MSc program in energy policy and climate, and as a Transatlantic Postdoc Fellow in International Relations and Security with the Paul Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University, the RAND Corporation and the German Institute for International and Security Affairs.

Dr Goldthau's academic interests focus on energy security and global governance issues related to oil and gas. His publications include Energy Union. Europe's new Liberal Mercantilism? (Palgrave 2016), A Liberal Actor in a Realist World: The EU Regulatory State and the Global Political Economy of Energy (Oxford University Press, 2015), The Global Energy Challenge: Environment, Development and Security (Palgrave Macmillan, 2015), the Wiley Handbook on Global Energy Policy (Wiley Blackwell, 2013), Dynamics of Energy Governance in Europe and Russia (Palgrave, 2012), Global Energy Governance: The New Rules of the Game (Brookings Press, 2010), Imported Oil and US National Security (RAND, 2009) and OPEC (Hanser, 2009).



By Date



AP Images

June 2016

Russia: Playing Hardball or Bidding Farewell to Europe?

Discussion Paper

By Morena Skalamera, Associate, Geopolitics of Energy Project and Andreas Goldthau, Associate, The Geopolitics of Energy Project

One of the great questions of energy geopolitics over the last few years has been the nature and extent of Russia’s shift in export strategy away from Europe. This question necessitates a thorough investigation of Gazprom’s reaction to a set of factors that threaten its position in the European gas market and, in turn, an assessment of key factors driving future European supply structures. This paper aims to do just that; it explores the extent to which this new Russian export strategy is real, and to the extent that it is, it investigates the drivers of the new approach in terms of timing, substance, and the prospects for this new approach to succeed. To this end, this discussion paper relies on a set of background interviews with policy makers, industry representatives, and analysts in Russia and Brussels.



Wikipedia, David R. Tribble

24 May 2016

Conceptualizing the above ground factors in shale gas: Toward a research agenda on regulatory governance

Journal Article, Energy Research & Social Science

By Andreas Goldthau, Associate, The Geopolitics of Energy Project

Stalling progress in European, Chinese and Latin American shale has been attributed to difficult geological formations and lacking data. Yet, ‘above ground’ factors matter in the extractive industries as much as geology. It is policies, regulation and institutional settings that determines the success or failure of a contested, risk bound technology such as fracking. This article suggests that a regulatory governance agenda may offer novel insights into shale gas as a policy phenomenon.




6 May 2016

Energy decisions reframed as justice and ethical concerns

Journal Article, Nature Energy

By Andreas Goldthau, Associate, The Geopolitics of Energy Project

Many energy consumers, and even analysts and policymakers, confront and frame energy and climate risks in a moral vacuum, rarely incorporating broader social justice concerns. Here, to remedy this gap, we investigate how concepts from justice and ethics can inform energy decision-making by reframing five energy problems — nuclear waste, involuntary resettlement, energy pollution, energy poverty and climate change — as pressing justice concerns.



Palgrave Macmillan


The EU Regulatory State, Commission Leadership and External Energy Governance

Book Chapter

By Andreas Goldthau, Associate, The Geopolitics of Energy Project

The chapter discusses the EU as an actor in global energy, and shows that the EU – short of a strong set of policy tools – relies more than other players on exporting its own rules. It explores the areas in which the Commission is capable of exerting (regulatory) external power in the energy sector and assesses the Commission's actions with regards to the challenges facing the EU along the energy value chain: upstream, midstream and downstream.



Wikimedia Commons

December 2015

Addressing the Russian Energy Challenge: Why Regulation Trumps Geopolitics

Policy Brief, German Marshall Fund

By Andreas Goldthau, Associate, The Geopolitics of Energy Project

Europe’s dependence on Russian gas has raised security concerns, especially in response to Russia’s aggression against Ukraine. But this threat is overestimated. The truth is that the EU market, a large market with relatively high prices, is very important for Gazprom. What is more, Europe’s regulatory apparatus is well-equipped to deal with market power and discriminatory pricing, which is at the core of the real problem Russian gas poses to Europe.



October 2015

A Liberal Actor in a Realist World: The European Union Regulatory State and the Global Political Economy of Energy


By Andreas Goldthau, Associate, The Geopolitics of Energy Project

A Liberal Actor in a Realist World assesses the changing nature of the global political economy of energy and the European Union's response, and the external dimension of the regulatory state. The book concludes that the EU's soft power has a hard edge, which is derived primarily from its regulatory power.



October 2015

The Global Energy Challenge: Environment, Development and Security


By Andreas Goldthau, Associate, The Geopolitics of Energy Project

The Global Energy Challenge provides a comprehensive overview of today’s three most topical energy challenges, or the “energy trilemma”: climate change, energy poverty and energy security. The book addresses the rise of energy geopolitics and the related concerns surrounding “energy weapons” and the “race for resources.”



Creative Commons


"Between a Rock and a Hard Place: International Market Dynamics, Domestic Politics and Gazprom's Strategy"

Journal Article, Cadmus EUI Research Repository

By Andreas Goldthau, Associate, The Geopolitics of Energy Project

Gazprom, Russian's prime state owned gas producer, is facing severe pressure stemming from international gas market dynamics, EU regulation and the Ukraine crisis. Slowing gas demand coupled with shifting pricing models and a persisting transit issue pose significant challenges for Gazprom's business going forward.



Creative Commons

May 21, 2015

"Saudi Arabia and the Shifting Geoeconomics of Oil"

Op-Ed, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

By Andreas Goldthau, Associate, The Geopolitics of Energy Project

The global oil market is in upheaval. Prices plunged more than 50 percent between mid-2014 and mid-2015, leaving them hovering around $60 per barrel. Consumers, producers, and governments, all having grown accustomed to $100 oil, were taken by surprise. After all, just prior to their collapse, oil prices had held remarkably steady for three years, their most stable period since the end of the Bretton Woods era in the early 1970s.



February 26, 2015

"Soft power with a hard edge: EU policy tools and energy security"

Journal Article, Review of International Political Economy

By Andreas Goldthau, Associate, The Geopolitics of Energy Project

International security debates surrounding the European Union (EU) energy supply challenge commonly invoke the need for more EU hard power – e.g. getting tough on Russia or engaging directly with other exporters. This article investigates whether what might be labeled ‘soft power with a hard edge’ instead amounts to a consistent policy strategy for the EU. The central argument is that the EU has turned a weakness into strength, and developed a set of tools that sharpen the way soft power is exercised in the energy sector. The article explores how soft power affects companies that ‘come and play’ on the EU market: the rules of the Single European Market (SEM) and how they affect external firms. It also assesses the long reach of the SEM: both the gravitational ‘pull’ the SEM exerts in the ‘near aboard’, and the EU's ‘push’ to facilitate the development of midstream infrastructure and upstream investment. The conclusion is that the EU regulatory state is emerging as an international energy actor in its own right. It limits the ways states like Russia can use state firms in the geopolitical game; and it exports its model into the near abroad, thus stabilizing energy supply and transit routes.

Events Calendar

We host a busy schedule of events throughout the fall, winter and spring. Past guests include: UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, former Vice President Al Gore, and former Soviet Union President Mikhail Gorbachev.