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Andreas Goldthau

Andreas Goldthau

Associate, The Geopolitics of Energy Project




Dr. Andreas Goldthau is Associate with the Geopolitics of Energy Project at Harvard University’s Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs and Professor of Public Policy at Central European University. He is also a Fellow with the Global Public Policy Institute. His academic career includes stints with the RAND Corporation and SAIS, Johns Hopkins University, where he also served as an Adjunct Professor in the MSc program in Energy Policy and Climate. Goldthau’s research interests focus on energy security and global governance issues related to oil and gas. His latest research project, supported by the EU’s Marie Curie IOF Program, investigates energy technology innovation and transfer, with a focus on shale gas prospects beyond the US.

Goldthau's articles have appeared in a range of journals, including the Journal of European Public Policy, Review of International Political Economy, Energy Policy, International Affairs, and Global Policy. He has authored, co-authored or co-edited A Liberal Actor in a Realist World. The EU Regulatory State and the Global Political Economy of Energy (Oxford University Press, 2015), The Global Energy Challenge. Environment, Development and Security (Palgrave Macmillan, forthcoming 2015), the Wiley Handbook on Global Energy Policy (Wiley Blackwell, 2013), Dynamics of Energy Governance in Europe and Russia (Palgrave, 2012), Global Energy Governance. The New Rules of the Game (Brookings Press, 2010), Imported Oil and U.S. National Security (RAND, 2009) and OPEC (Hanser, 2009). 



By Date



Palgrave Macmillan


The EU Regulatory State, Commission Leadership and External Energy Governance

Book Chapter

By Andreas Goldthau, Associate, The Geopolitics of Energy Project

The chapter discusses the EU as an actor in global energy, and shows that the EU – short of a strong set of policy tools – relies more than other players on exporting its own rules. It explores the areas in which the Commission is capable of exerting (regulatory) external power in the energy sector and assesses the Commission's actions with regards to the challenges facing the EU along the energy value chain: upstream, midstream and downstream.



Wikimedia Commons

December 2015

Addressing the Russian Energy Challenge: Why Regulation Trumps Geopolitics

Policy Brief, German Marshall Fund

By Andreas Goldthau, Associate, The Geopolitics of Energy Project

Europe’s dependence on Russian gas has raised security concerns, especially in response to Russia’s aggression against Ukraine. But this threat is overestimated. The truth is that the EU market, a large market with relatively high prices, is very important for Gazprom. What is more, Europe’s regulatory apparatus is well-equipped to deal with market power and discriminatory pricing, which is at the core of the real problem Russian gas poses to Europe.



October 2015

A Liberal Actor in a Realist World: The European Union Regulatory State and the Global Political Economy of Energy


By Andreas Goldthau, Associate, The Geopolitics of Energy Project

A Liberal Actor in a Realist World assesses the changing nature of the global political economy of energy and the European Union's response, and the external dimension of the regulatory state. The book concludes that the EU's soft power has a hard edge, which is derived primarily from its regulatory power.



October 2015

The Global Energy Challenge: Environment, Development and Security


By Andreas Goldthau, Associate, The Geopolitics of Energy Project

The Global Energy Challenge provides a comprehensive overview of today’s three most topical energy challenges, or the “energy trilemma”: climate change, energy poverty and energy security. The book addresses the rise of energy geopolitics and the related concerns surrounding “energy weapons” and the “race for resources.”



Creative Commons


"Between a Rock and a Hard Place: International Market Dynamics, Domestic Politics and Gazprom's Strategy"

Journal Article, Cadmus EUI Research Repository

By Andreas Goldthau, Associate, The Geopolitics of Energy Project

Gazprom, Russian's prime state owned gas producer, is facing severe pressure stemming from international gas market dynamics, EU regulation and the Ukraine crisis. Slowing gas demand coupled with shifting pricing models and a persisting transit issue pose significant challenges for Gazprom's business going forward.



Creative Commons

May 21, 2015

"Saudi Arabia and the Shifting Geoeconomics of Oil"

Op-Ed, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

By Andreas Goldthau, Associate, The Geopolitics of Energy Project

The global oil market is in upheaval. Prices plunged more than 50 percent between mid-2014 and mid-2015, leaving them hovering around $60 per barrel. Consumers, producers, and governments, all having grown accustomed to $100 oil, were taken by surprise. After all, just prior to their collapse, oil prices had held remarkably steady for three years, their most stable period since the end of the Bretton Woods era in the early 1970s.



February 26, 2015

"Soft power with a hard edge: EU policy tools and energy security"

Journal Article, Review of International Political Economy

By Andreas Goldthau, Associate, The Geopolitics of Energy Project

International security debates surrounding the European Union (EU) energy supply challenge commonly invoke the need for more EU hard power – e.g. getting tough on Russia or engaging directly with other exporters. This article investigates whether what might be labeled ‘soft power with a hard edge’ instead amounts to a consistent policy strategy for the EU. The central argument is that the EU has turned a weakness into strength, and developed a set of tools that sharpen the way soft power is exercised in the energy sector. The article explores how soft power affects companies that ‘come and play’ on the EU market: the rules of the Single European Market (SEM) and how they affect external firms. It also assesses the long reach of the SEM: both the gravitational ‘pull’ the SEM exerts in the ‘near aboard’, and the EU's ‘push’ to facilitate the development of midstream infrastructure and upstream investment. The conclusion is that the EU regulatory state is emerging as an international energy actor in its own right. It limits the ways states like Russia can use state firms in the geopolitical game; and it exports its model into the near abroad, thus stabilizing energy supply and transit routes.



Wikimedia CC

February 2015

The Russian Energy Outlook


By Andreas Goldthau, Associate, The Geopolitics of Energy Project

This AEI report strives to shed light on these uncertainties with the aim of providing realistic scenarios for the global energy outlook to 2030. Goldthau's chapter finds that Russia will remain one of the world’s top energy producers and exporters, but its energy future will hinge on several factors outside of Moscow’s control, including Western energy sanctions and European regulations. Should Europe shift away from dependence on Russian energy, the Kremlin will feel more pressure to court China.



December 4, 2014

Sieg der EU über Moskaus Pipeline-Politik


By Andreas Goldthau, Associate, The Geopolitics of Energy Project

Die Bürokraten haben Putin in die Knie gezwungen, nicht die Diplomaten

Der Kreml hat South Stream gestoppt, eines der wichtigsten Gas-Infrastrukturprojekte und Kernpunkt der russischen Pipeline-Diplomatie. Dies ist ein Erfolg europäischer Energie-Außenpolitik, und dieser ist in Brüssel zu verorten. Nun ist klar: Europas Antwort auf Russlands Energie-Geopolitik liegt in der Binnenmarktregulierung.



AP Images

May 22, 2014

"A liberal actor in a realist world? The Commission and the external dimension of the single market for energy"

Journal Article, Journal of European Public Policy

By Andreas Goldthau, Associate, The Geopolitics of Energy Project

This article investigates the European Commission's external energy policy through the lens of the regulatory state. It argues that because of the nature of its institutions, policy tools and resources, the Commission remains a liberal actor even as the world leaves the benign pro-market environment of the 1990s and becomes more mercantilist – or ‘realist’.

Events Calendar

We host a busy schedule of events throughout the fall, winter and spring. Past guests include: UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, former Vice President Al Gore, and former Soviet Union President Mikhail Gorbachev.