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"Long Time Going: Religion and the Duration of Crusading"

Soldiers defeat the powerful Teutonic Knights of the Cross at Grunwald in 1410.
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"Long Time Going: Religion and the Duration of Crusading"

Journal Article, International Security, volume 34, issue 2, pages 162-193

Fall 2009

Author: Michael Horowitz, Former Research Fellow, International Security Program, 2005-2007

Belfer Center Programs or Projects: Quarterly Journal: International Security



Scholars have argued for centuries about the relative importance of religion in determining behavior. Do actors with genuine religious beliefs, both leaders and foot soldiers, actually fight wars and commit atrocities in the name of religion and religious institutions? Or is religion a proxy for materialist variables such as land grabs or wealth creation? A case study of the Catholic Crusading movement and an evaluation of Crusading as an institution demonstrate that religiously motivated military campaigns, when decisive conclusions are not possible, may last longer than other campaigns because of the nonmaterial reasons for continuing to fight. Despite spectacular failures and rising costs, Crusading continued for centuries. The evidence shows that it is impossible to comprehend the persistence of Crusading over a several-hundred- year period without understanding the religious devotion at the heart of this institution. This research contributes to growing work in international relations on the importance of identity attributes and helps to explain how factors such as religion can influence processes such as crisis bargaining and war termination.



For more information about this publication please contact the IS Editorial Assistant at 617-495-1914.

For Academic Citation:

Michael C. Horowitz. "Long Time Going: Religion and the Duration of Crusading." International Security 34, no. 2 (Fall 2009): 162-193.

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