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Nuclear Modernization in China

Nuclear Modernization in China

Book Chapter, Assuring Destruction Forever: Nuclear Weapon Modernization Around the World, pages 17-26, Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom

March, 2012

Author: Hui Zhang, Senior Research Associate, Project on Managing the Atom

Belfer Center Programs or Projects: International Security; Managing the Atom; Science, Technology, and Public Policy


This new, groundbreaking study by Reaching Critical Will explores in-depth the nuclear weapon modernization programmes in China, France, India, Israel, Pakistan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and analyzes the costs of nuclear weapons in the context of the economic crisis, austerity measures, and rising challenges in meeting human and environmental needs. 

 As of March 2012, the nuclear weapon possessors are estimated to possess approximately 19,500 nuclear weapons. All of them have plans to modernize—upgrade and/or extend the lives of—their nuclear weapons.

In this study, non-governmental researchers and analysts provide information on each country’s modernization plans. There are eight country chapters followed by three “thematic” chapters that address issues of international law, divestment, and political will. The country chapters are chock full of detailed information about nuclear weapon programmes and policies while the thematic chapters analyze these policies in a broader context.

PDF available online for free


For more information about this publication please contact the MTA Program Assistant at 617-495-4219.

For Academic Citation:

Hui Zhang. "Nuclear Modernization in China." Chap. 1 in Assuring Destruction Forever: Nuclear Weapon Modernization Around the World., March, 2012.

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