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"Pakistan Through the Lens of the 'Triple A' Theory"

Journal Article, The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, volume 30, issue 1, pages 181-192

Winter 2006

Author: Hassan Abbas, Former Senior Advisor, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs

Belfer Center Programs or Projects: International Security; Managing the Atom; Science, Technology, and Public Policy



How has a state whose founding fathers were secular people who believed in rule of law and democracy drifted toward religious extremism and authoritarianism? Three primary factors—variations on the Triple A theory of influence (Allah, the Army, and America)—have led Pakistan down this path: a powerful independent military, the mushrooming of religious militant groups, and the hydra-headed monster that is the intelligence services.


For more information about this publication please contact the ISP Program Coordinator at 617-496-1981.

For Academic Citation:

Abbas, Hassan. "Pakistan Through the Lens of the 'Triple A' Theory." The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs 30, no. 1 (Winter 2006): 181-192.

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