By Zhu Liu
Climate change driven by anthropengic carbon emissions is one of the
most serious challenges facing human development. China is currently
the world’s largest developing country, primary energy consumer,
and carbon emitter. The nation releases one quarter of the global total
of carbon dioxide (9.2 Gt CO2 in 2013), 1.5 times that from the US.
Nearly three-quarters (73%) of the growth in global carbon emission
between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Without mitigation, China’s
emissions could rise by more than 50% in the next 15 years. Given
the magnitude and growth rate of China’s carbon emissions, the country
has become a critical partner in developing policy approaches to
reduce global CO2 emissions.
China is a country with significant regional differences in terms of
technology, energy mix, and economic development.1 Understanding
the characteristics and state of regional carbon emissions within China
is critical for designing geographically appropriate mitigation policies,
including the provincial cap and trade system that is projected to be
lanuched in 2017. In this study, I summarize the key features and drivers
of China’s regional carbon emissions and conclude with suggestions
for a low carbon policy for China.
The principal findings are:
(1) Provincial aggregated CO2 emissions increased from 3 billion tons
in 2000 to 10 billion tons in 2016. During the period, Shandong province
contributed most to national emissions, followed by Liaoning,
Hebei, and Shanxi provinces. Most of the CO2 emissions were from raw
coal, which is primarily burned in the manufacturing and the thermal
(2) Significant differences exist among provinces in terms of CO2 emissions.
Analyses of per capita emissions and emission intensity indicate
that provinces located in the northwest and north had higher per capita
CO2 emissions and greater emission intensities than the central and
southeast coastal regions. Developing areas have intensive resource use and their economic structure is dominated by heavy industries with higher
sectoral emission intensity. These areas contribute to most of the growth
in national emissions and are the main drivers of China’s carbon intensive
(3) An analysis of the factors that affect China’s CO2 emissions shows that
technology heterogeneity is directly connected to China’s carbon growth.
The dissimilar rate of adoption of energy efficient technologies among
regions is a major barrier to China’s CO2 mitigation, and thus needs more
attention from researchers and policy makers.
"When It Is Unfamiliar To Me: Local Acceptance Of Planned Nuclear Power Plants In China In The Post-Fukushima Era"
Many contributions have been made in the studies of the factors that influence public acceptance of nuclear power. However, previous studies seldom focused on nuclear power plants in the planning stage. Actually public perception is usually more sensitive at the preliminary planning stage of a nuclear power station. Mainly utilizing questionnaire survey and focus group methods, we have identified the factors that are correlated with local acceptance of planned nuclear power plants in China.
October 20, 2016
Small Wars Journal
By Jessica Malekos Smith, Postdoctoral Fellow, Cyber Security Project
"Admittedly, international norms do not blossom into fully-grown gardens overnight. What the CEPP Test does offer, however, is a proverbial seed, which if properly cultivated could take root in the international legal system."
In September of 1991, I met with Russian general officers in Minsk at a military reform seminar. Our discussions took place against the backdrop of the August coup attempt in Moscow, the subsequent collapse of Soviet power, and the so-called parade of sovereignty by former Soviet Republics. At the same time, President Yeltsin was signaling his intent to change dramatically the national security strategy, military doctrine, and military system the Soviet Union had developed since the 1940s.
October 2, 2016
By William H. Tobey, Senior Fellow, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs
This article reviews the motivations, strengths, and weaknesses of the Nuclear SecuritySummits (NSS), both procedurally and substantively.
September 30, 2016
By Henry Lee, Director, Environment and Natural Resources Program, Jinqiang (JC) Chen, Former Giorgio Ruffolo Postdoctoral Research Fellow in Sustainability Science, Energy Technology Innovation Policy research group, 2015–2016, Zhang Li, Former Predoctoral Research Fellow, Energy Technology Innovation Policy research group, 2015–2016, Amanda Sardonis, Assistant Director, Environment and Natural Resources Program and Pu Wang, Giorgio Ruffolo Postdoctoral Research Fellow in Sustainability Science, Energy Technology Innovation Policy research group
The Harvard-Tsinghua Workshop on Low-Carbon Development and Public Policy is the third annual joint workshop between the Harvard Kennedy School’s Environment and Natural Resources Program and the Sustainability Science Program and the Center for Science, Technology, and Education Policy at Tsinghua University. The workshop convened prominent members of the academic and policy communities from China and the United States at Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, on June 2-3, 2016.
The three closed sessions were on: 1) Market Mechanisms to Reduce Carbon Emissions, 2) Role of Local Government in Low-Carbon Development, and 3) Energy Technology Innovation in the Transportation Sector.
By Robert N. Stavins, Albert Pratt Professor of Business and Government; Member of the Board; Director, Harvard Project on Climate Agreements and Robert C. Stowe, Co-Director, Harvard Project on Climate Agreements
The Harvard Project releases a collection of expert briefs on the elaboration of the Paris Agreement.
October 1, 2016
"Can the Green Economy Deliver It All? Experiences of Renewable Energy Policies with Socio-economic Objectives"
Applied Energy, volume 179
The Green Economy (GE) paradigm aims to reconcile environmental and socio-economic objectives. Policies to deploy renewable energy (RE) are widely perceived as a way to tap the potential synergies of these objectives. It is, however, still largely unclear whether the potential of simultaneously achieving both environmental and socio-economic objectives can be fully realized, and whether and how multiple objectives influence policy design, implementation, and evaluation. The authors aim to contribute to this aspect of GE research by looking at selected country experiences of renewable energy deployment with respect to the socio-economic goals of job creation or energy access.
Survival, issue 5, volume 58
By Ben Buchanan, Postdoctoral Fellow, Cyber Security Project
Encryption's new normal is changing the way in which states assert their sovereignty at home and abroad. Cryptography has gone mainstream. Now more than ever, encryption is used by ordinary citizens, often without their knowledge, and is a subject of national debate.
August 27, 2016
Progress in Nuclear Energy
Cooperation between states has been essential for global nu- clear power development from its inception, due to the techno- logical complexity of nuclear energy and the uneven distribution of uranium resources worldwide. International cooperation has suc- cessfully resulted in the peaceful introduction of nuclear power to numerous countries, but has also contributed to the proliferation of nuclear weapons in several cases. With the acceleration of the globalization process, the integration of the once-divided global nuclear industry, and the emergence of new proliferation risks since the end of the Cold War (such as new nuclear weapon states, rogue proliferators, or nuclear terrorism), it is necessary to under- stand the nature of civil nuclear cooperation, and its implication on nuclear nonproliferation and export control regimes.