Economics and Policy of Energy and the Environment, issue 3
By Morena Skalamera, Post-doctoral Research Fellow, Geopolitics of Energy Project
In the past few years the gas sector has experienced a wave of unprecedented changes. The increasing globalization of gas markets and the technological breakthrough of shale gas production in the United States have triggered deep changes in Eurasian gas market governance.
Journal of Nuclear Materials Management, volume 42
By Hui Zhang, Senior Research Associate, Project on Managing the Atom
Since September 11, 2001, China has substantially advanced its physical protection system, with a switch in focus from the traditional "guns, gates, guards" approach to an effective mixed approach, combining personnel with modern techniques. Then-Chinese Preident Hu Jintao emphasized at the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit that, "In the future, China will further take nuclear security measures, make sure the security of its own nuclear materials and facilities, improve the overall nuclear security." This paper examines the specific and detailed physical protection approaches that are currently applied to China's nuclear power plants, and recommends further steps to improve China's existing nuclear security system.
Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences
By Kavita Surana, Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program, Ananth Chikkatur, Former Associate, Energy Technology Innovation Policy research group and Ambuj D. Sagar, Associate, Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program
Energy technology innovation is the key to driving the technological changes that are necessary to meet the challenge of mitigating energy-related greenhouse gas emissions to avoid 'dangerous climate change.' Success in innovation requires the enhancement of public investment in the innovation process, the creation of markets for low-carbon technologies through stronger climate policies, and a continued focus on energy access and equity.
Energy Research & Social Science
By Kathleen Araújo, Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Science, Technology, and Public Policy/Project on Managing the Atom
Energy transitions are an unmistakable part of today's public discourse. Whether shaped by fuel price flux, environmental and security concerns, technology change, or goals to improve energy access, attention turns to ways in which to improve energy pathways. Yet what is understood about energy system change is still emerging. This article explores the evolving field of energy transitions with an aim to connect and enlarge the scholarship.
June 15, 2014
"Energy Saving Alignment Strategy: Achieving Energy Efficiency in Urban Buildings by Matching Occupant Temperature Preferences with a Building's Indoor Thermal Environment"
Applied Energy, volume 123
Existing strategies for residential energy savings through physical renovation or motivating occupant energy conservation behavior can be costly and/or have transitory effects. Focusing on multi-family dwellings, an important subset of the urban residential sector, the authors propose an Energy Saving Alignment Strategy (ESAS) that has advantageous cost-effectiveness and a long-lasting influence. By aligning the distribution of residents' thermostat preferences with the indoor temperature, ESAS aims to maximize thermal comfort and, accordingly, energy savings in multi-family buildings where indoor temperatures vary between apartments as a function of apartment orientation and floor level.
Nationalities Papers, issue 2, volume 42
By Andrew Radin, Research Fellow, International Security Program
Following Kosovo's declaration of independence in February 2008, the European Union deployed a rule of law mission in Kosovo (EULEX). While EULEX and its supporters have argued that the mission has the potential to succeed, critics claim that the mission has failed to significantly improve Kosovo's rule of law institutions, to address the rule of law vacuum in the north of Kosovo, and to prosecute high-level organized crime and corruption.
"Compulsive Policy-making—The Evolution of the German Feed-in Tariff System for Solar Photovoltaic Power"
By Joern Hoppmann, Former Associate, Energy Technology Innovation Policy research group, April–August 2013; Former Research Fellow, Energy Technology Innovation Policy research group, September 2012–March 2013, Joern Huenteler, Research Fellow, Energy Technology Innovation Policy research group and Bastien Girod
This article shows how complex interdependencies and the uncertain nature of technological change shape the process of targeted policy interventions in socio-technical systems. Toward this end, the authors analyzed the evolution of the German feed-in tariff (FIT) system for solar photovoltaic power, a highly effective and widely copied policy instrument targeted at fostering the diffusion and development of renewable energy technologies.
Journal of Policy and Complex Systems, issue 1, volume 1
The role of innovation and entrepreneurship is increasingly getting policy attention in emerging countries. A growing body of literature is deriving its inspiration from the work of Joseph Schumpeter. His seminal 1911 book, The Theory of Economic Development, outlined a general framework for understanding the role of innovation and entrepreneurship in economic transformation. Despite Schumpeter's influence on economic policies in industrialized countries, there has been little application of his work in emerging countries.
"A Multi-regional Input–output Analysis of Domestic Virtual Water Trade and Provincial Water Footprint in China"
Ecological Economics, volume 100
By Chao Zhang, Former Giorgio Ruffolo Fellow, Sustainability Science Program/Energy Technology Innovation Policy research group, 2012–July 2013 and Laura Diaz Anadon, Assistant Professor of Public Policy; Associate Director, Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program; Co-PI, Energy Technology Innovation Policy research group
China's booming economy has brought increasing pressures on its water resources. The water scarcity problem in China is characterized by a mismatch between the spatial distributions of water resources, economic development and other primary factors of production, which leads to the separation of production and consumption of water-intensive products. In this paper, the authors quantify the scale and structure of virtual water trade and consumption-based water footprints at the provincial level in China based on a multi-regional input–output model.
International Security, issue 3, volume 38
By Dominic D.P. Johnson and Monica Duffy Toft, Former Associate Professor of Public Policy; Former Board Member, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs; Former Director, Initiative on Religion and International Affairs.
International relations theory has thus far failed to account for the recurrence and severity of territorial conflict, especially over land with little or no value. Evolutionary biology offers a unique explanation for this behavior. An examination of territoriality across the animal kingdom as well as evolutionary game theory that deals with territorial behavior generates novel predictions about when territorial conflict is likely to occur.