Journal Article (continued)
Journal Article, Sharqiyya
By Annie Tracy Samuel, Former Associate, International Security Program, July–August 2014; Former Research Fellow, International Security Program, 2011–2014; Former Research Fellow, Dubai Initiative, Fall 2011
"The past year has been one of tremendous change in the Middle East and North Africa. The transformations that have come in the wake of momentous upheavals—now commonly known as the Arab Spring—have a wide and varying significance. For many people in the region, the past year has been one of daring, fearless action in pursuit of far-reaching political change. Their demands induced fear among the long-time, autocratic rulers, which has resulted either in the abdication of long-clung-to power or in brutal resistance and violence against masses of unarmed, pro-democracy protesters. World leaders have found themselves scrambling to protect various vital interests while struggling not to end up on the wrong side of history."
Journal Article, Energy Policy, issue 6, volume 39
By Afreen Siddiqi, Visiting Scholar, Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program and Laura Diaz Anadon, Assistant Professor of Public Policy, Harvard Kennedy School; Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs
Extracting, delivering, and disposing water requires energy, and similarly, many processes for extracting and refining various fuel sources and producing electricity use water. This so-called 'water–energy nexus', is important to understand due to increasing energy demands and decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas. This paper performs a country-level quantitative assessment of this nexus in the MENA region.
Journal Article, International Security, issue 2, volume 35
By Adria Lawrence, Former Research Fellow, Intrastate Conflict Program/International Security Program, 2007–2008
In some former colonies, nationalist movements erupted into intractable wars, terrorist campaigns, and rural insurgencies. In other places, however, nationalist organizations achieved their goals using peaceful strategies such as bargaining, diplomacy, and popular protest. Existing studies have examined various dimensions of nationalist violence, yet none explain where and why violence erupts in the first place. The theory of competitive violence, however, posits that in locations where colonial powers suppressed nationalist opposition and encouraged competition among nationalist leaders, violence was more likely to occur.
Journal Article, PS: Political Science and Politics, issue 4, volume 43
By Tara Maller, Former Research Fellow, International Security Program, 2010–2011
"...[D]iplomatic sanctions are seen as a low-cost means of isolating and delegitimizing regimes. This perspective, however, fails to recognize that maintaining diplomatic sanctions may actually entail a number of substantial costs to the United States and may even undermine economic sanctions' effectiveness."
Journal Article, International Security, issue 1, volume 35
Positive inducements as a strategy for dealing with regimes that challenge core norms of international behavior and the national interests of the United States ("renegade regimes") contain both promises and pitfalls. Such inducements, which include policy concessions and economic favors, can serve two main purposes: (1) arranging a beneficial quid pro quo with the other side, and (2) catalyzing, via positive engagement, a restructuring of interests and preferences within the other side's politico-economic system (such that quid pro quos become less and less necessary).
November 18, 2009
Journal Article, Current Trends in Islamist Ideology, volume 9
By Thomas Hegghammer, Former Associate, Initiative on Religion in International Affairs/International Security Program, 2009–2010; Former Research Fellow, Initiative on Religion in International Affairs/International Security Program, 2008–2009
In the past five years, "far enemy groups" such as al-Qaeda Central have adopted a more hostile and explicitly takfiri rhetoric toward Muslim regimes. Conversely, "near enemy" activists such as the militants in Algeria have become more anti-Western in both words and deeds. A process of ideological hybridization has occurred, with the result that the enemy hierarchies of many jihadist groups are becoming more unclear or heterogeneous than they used to be.
"Draining the Sea by Filling the Graves: Investigating the Effectiveness of Indiscriminate Violence as a Counterinsurgency Strategy"
Journal Article, Civil Wars, The Origins and Effectiveness of Insurgent and Counterinsurgent Strategies, issue 4, volume 9
By Alexander B. Downes, Former Research Fellow, International Security Program, 2007–2008
"It is commonly believed in the literature on insurgency and counterinsurgency that to be effective in undermining civilian support for guerrillas, violence against noncombatants must be selective or risk alienating the population. Yet cases exist where governments have defeated insurgencies by wielding indiscriminate violence against noncombatants. This paper explores the conditions under which such violence can be effective through a case study of British counterinsurgency strategy in the Second Anglo-Boer War (1899–1902)."
What Leads Some Ordinary Men and Women in Arab Countries to Support Terrorism Against the United States?: Evidence from Survey Research in Algeria and Jordan
Journal Article, Journal of Conflict Resolution, issue 2, volume 51
By Michael Robbins, Former Research Fellow, The Dubai Initiative
Findings from representative national surveys in Algeria and Jordan show that nei- ther religious orientations, judgments about Western culture, nor economic circum- stances account for variance in approval of terrorist acts against U.S. targets. Alternatively, in both countries, approval of terrorism against the United States is dis- proportionately likely among men and women with negative judgments about their own government and about U.S. foreign policy. Taken together, these findings sug- gest that approval of terrorism is fostered by negative attitudes toward actors consid- ered responsible for the political and economic status quo. Given that Algeria and Jordan have had different experiences with respect to terrorism and also differ in demographic, political, and economic structure, identical findings from these dis- similar countries suggest that the observed relationships are not country specific and may apply more generally.
Journal Article, Insight Turkey, issue 2, volume 8
By Brenda Shaffer, Former Research Fellow, International Security Program, 1999–2007; Former Research Director, Caspian Studies Program, 2000–2005; Former Research Director, Caspian Studies Project, 2005–2007
Despite this extensive activity in the energy sphere, it seems, however, that Ankara's energy policy has been undertaken without a strategic plan and with little integration of energy issues into Turkey's overall foreign and security policies.
By Emad Shahin, Former Faculty Affiliate, The Dubai Initiative
The year 2005 was a momentous, yet turbulent one for Egypt. The country witnessed two major elections, presidential
and parliamentary, a vibrant movement towards political reform,
and a remarkable political mobility. All this came against a background of internal domestic pressures on the regime to expand the scope of pluralism,and amidst concerns that President Mubarak would run for office for a fifth term, thus ruling Egypt for 29 years.The increased interest of external actors, particularly the US and the EU, in
political reforms has also prompted the regime to introduce a series of
measures that allowed the country, for the first time since it became a republic, to have a multi-candidate presidential elections and a relativelymore contested legislative elections.